Bebat Ebook

Spring 2019. From e-scooters to electric buses and trucks, there are few subjects today that are the focus of so much public attention as driving vehicles powered by an EV battery. The battery is at the heart of this story. What happens to such batteries once they have completed the first phase of their life cycle? What is the most appropriate aftercare procedure for each type of battery used in the wide range of e-mobility vehicles? And what should a manufacturer or importer of these means of transport do to ensure compliance?

Open Ebook

Introduction

It is now clear that e-mobility is no longer just a pipe dream. We have already reported in a separate e-book about how Norway has managed to lead the field in the number of new electric vehicles sold (31.2% in 2018) and what we can learn from that.

Now it is time for the next crucial questions:

  • What does the e-mobility landscape in Belgium look like today?
  • What happens to EV batteries once they have completed the first phase of their life cycle?
  • What is the most appropriate aftercare procedure for each type of battery used in the wide range of e-mobility vehicles? And, as an importer of e-mobility batteries, what should you do to ensure compliance with the extended producer responsibility?

The fact remains that we are facing an evolution that will have a major impact for all parties concerned. Not least in the final phase of the value chain. But the battery too, and in particular the industrial battery, cannot escape the new processes integral to the so-called circular economy, in which repair, refurbishment, reuse and remanufacturing full and partial service life value-retention processes (VRPs) are becoming the standard.

It is also the phase in which we at Bebat have been gaining years of knowledge and experience. Ensuring the second life of EV and industrial batteries through collection, transport, storage and dismantling for recycling, reuse and second-life applications is now more important than ever.

Bebat, single point of contact for all types of battery and specialised in customised solutions, wishes you pleasant reading!

When they hear the term e-mobility, or electric mobility, most people think of electric cars. And, generally, full electric ones. But it deals with (much) more than that. This report also looks at e-mobility from a broader perspective. This is because electric power is used in (many) more forms of conveyance today than we might assume.

Did you know…

… “plug-in driving (stekkerrijden)” has become a household name in the Netherlands?

Electric Vehicles & Electrified Vehicle Electrified Vehicles include:

Cars

Cars

  • Battery electric vehicles (BEVs)
  • Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)
  • Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)
  • Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)
Read more
Light-duty vehicles

Light-duty vehicles

  • Passenger light-duty vehicles (PLDVs)
  • Light commercial vehicles (LCVs)
  • Quadricycles and electric golf carts
Read more
Construction equipment vehicles

Construction equipment vehicles

  • excavators, articulated dump trucks and transshipment cranes, etc.
  • vehicles for handling goods (forklifts and internal transport) and street sweepers
Read more
IWheels

IWheels

  • electric mopeds and motorcycles (two or three wheels)
  • e-scooters, Segways, Hoverboards, mobility scooters and one-wheelers, etc.
Read more
Electric bikes

Electric bikes

  • city bikes
  • recumbent bikes
  • pedelec
  • cargo bikes
  • carrier cycles
Read more
Drones

Drones

Models, microlights and other small aircraft

Read more
E-yachts

E-yachts

Pleasure craft, inland shipping vessels and boats for freight transport

Read more
Cars
Cars

When we look back, we see that the number of full electric cars sold in Belgium doubled in just three years. Although it is a significant increase, the actual numbers remain small. And this becomes clear when we look at the figures.

Here the latest figures from 2019 can be found in the following Traxio report.

In particular, the number of hybrid cars in the electric-petrol category continues to grow, with an increase of 39% compared to 2017. For electric-diesel hybrids, the increase was 9.8%. In total, there are now 81,107 electric-petrol hybrids and 5,905 electric-diesel hybrids in Belgium. The electric-petrol hybrids make up around 1.39% of the total number of vehicles.

In only four years, the number has quadrupled: from 21,774 in 2014 to 81,107 in 2018.

This rapid increase is also a result of federal tax measures: the tax deductible percentage for car expenses in relation to so-called “false hybrids” will be phased out from 2020, unless they were registered before the end of 2017. This is why many people decided to buy a hybrid.

False hybrids (plug-in hybrids) are vehicles that run on both fossil fuel and a rechargeable battery where the use of battery power is significantly restricted. A much lower rate of tax relief will therefore apply for these vehicles from 2020.

It is still much too early to talk about a flourishing market in electric vehicles. Or at least that is currently the case. But as one expert from the logistics industry recently put it: “Once it takes off, it can go very quickly.”

Bebat’s prognosis:

92,000 EFVs* in 2025 (18.4% of new vehicles)
154,000 EFVs* in 2030 (30% of new vehicles)

* * Electrified vehicles (PHEVs- BEVs-PEVs)

This is because ...

  • more and more full electric models are arriving on the market, increasing the amount of choice
  • the price of EV batteries (which determines the price of the car) is continuing to fall
  • the average range is increasing
  • and the recharging possibilities (fast and slow) are improving all the time

These developments in e-driving will likely accelerate in various sectors within the foreseeable future.

Compare the total cost of ownership (TCO) of electric, plug-in hybrid, natural gas and hydrogen cars with conventional fuel-powered cars at www.milieuvriendelijkevoertuigen.be An electric car is more expensive to purchase than a conventional car, but the fuel and maintenance costs, for example, are lower. There are also government and other incentives available. In Flanders, for example, you will receive 4,000 euros.

quote

Belgium is a typical trend follower, not a trendsetter. Subsidies have so far not brought much change to the country. The focus has now mainly turned to the company car market to give added stimulus to making the fleet more eco-friendly. People are not really aware of the challenge that we face. If our goal is to be fully electric by 2050 and if a car has an average lifespan of 15 years, then 100% of newly registered vehicles need to be electric from 2035. That is just around the corner! Bridging the gap between today (with a just a small percentage of EVs) and 2035 (with 100 per cent EVs) is an enormous challenge.

quote

A study by Bloomberg, on the other hand, shows that the price of an electric car will be cheaper than a petrol or diesel car from 2025. The running cost of an electric car is already much lower today than other cars because of lower maintenance costs and because it runs on electricity, for example. So you need to look at the TCO, or total cost of ownership, per kilometre, including tax and fiscal incentives. On top of that, the price of an electric car will also be cheaper from 2025. So should we simply wait to see what happens or should we take the lead? E-mobility is more than just a vehicle on wheels. There is a whole services sector behind it, as well as benefits for our economy.

Prof. Joeri Van Mierlo - VUB/MOBI

During the recent Brussels Motor Show in January 2019, there was great public interest for the various new EV models.

Although the majority of these are in the higher-price segment, family cars and smaller city cars are likely soon to follow. This is because new technology is often first introduced in the luxury segment, followed by a phase of democratisation. When seen from the perspective of the total cost of ownership (including premiums and tax benefits), driving electric is already cheaper than many people think.

The most striking innovations are likely to come from China. It is the largest car market in the world, where 50% of all electric cars manufactured are sold today. There are also almost 500 manufacturers of electric vehicles in China.

Some of the brands that we should keep an eye on in the coming years include: NIO, Byton, BYD, GAC Motors, Geely, Lynk & Co, Maxus, MG, NEVS (ex-Saab), JAC Motos, AIWAYS and Roewe.

In addition, companies such as Dyson harbour ambitions beyond just vacuum cleaners. And Amazon recently invested in Rivian, a promising new American brand of 4WD vehicles.

Compliance for cars

If you put full or semi-electric vehicles onto the Belgian market, or if you are a manufacturer of (semi) electric vehicles you will need to comply with a number of legal requirements for discarded or reusable batteries, in line with the extended producer responsibility set out in the European directive on discarded batteries and accumulators (2006/66/EC). These requirements include:

  • Registration with the three Regions
  • Annual or monthly reporting of vehicle batteries introduced to the market (including starter batteries, EV batteries and button cell batteries)
  • Responsibility for the collection of these used batteries
  • Transportation by a licensed company approved by the three Regions, in accordance with the regulations governing the transport of hazardous waste (ADR)
  • Processing and recycling of batteries collected by a licensed company approved by the three Regions
  • Achieving the minimum recycling efficiency and collection targets imposed by the EU and the three Regions
  • Reporting to the three Regions
  • Prevention and awareness campaigns

This is a lot. Fortunately, there is a solution (at European level) for each of the above administrative and logistical requirements. Discover the best solution for your company here.

Light freight and trucks
Light freight and trucks

In addition to passenger vehicles, car manufacturers are increasingly turning their attention to professional electric vehicles. The number of models with larger loading compartments is also increasing.

In 2018, the Belgian manufacturer of electric vans Addax Motors moved its assembly line from the former Ford factory in Genk to a new location in Deerlijk.

There is substantial market potential for smaller vans, with at least 800,000 of these vehicles on European roads. Smaller vans are used widely in urban areas and represent 40% of delivery van sales in Europe. Other examples representing the smaller electric vehicle or quadricycle market include Goupil, Aixam, Ligier, John Deer, Melex, Cargolev and Renault Twizy Cargo.

However, in spite of the improved profitability or TCO of electric vans, there are currently very few of these vehicles plying their trade in Europe: Citroën Berlingo, Renault Kangoo, Nissan 200N, Renault Master, VW eCrafter, SAIC Maxus, Peugeot Partner, Ford Transit PHEV (plug-in), MAN eTGE, Mercedes eVITO and eSPRINTER. They represent less than 1% of all newly registered vans. This is mainly due to the limited choice of models. Currently, there are only about ten models of electric vans on the market in the EU, compared to more than 200 diesel models.

According to a study carried out by CE Delft at the beginning of 2018 and commissioned by the European Federation for Transport and Environment (T&E), the TCO of smaller electric vans in 2018 has become equal to that of vans running on diesel. This was made possible by the rapid decrease in the price of batteries, which was by 24% in 2017 alone. The study took into account the purchase price, taxes and fuel and maintenance costs over a period of six years, corresponding to the ideal duration of a leasing contract for electric vans.

There are also increasing numbers of electric quadricycles (L6 and L7) coming onto the market, such as the Birò, Renault Twizy, Aixam, Ligier, GEM, Reva and Bajaj. And in the same category as these vehicles is the electric golf cart. The days that the golf course was the sole domain of golf carts have long since passed. They are increasingly becoming a regular feature on our streets and are convenient to get around in busy city traffic or in parks. Various models or types with different capacities and speeds have been introduced to the market in recent years, such as: Motrec, D-Line, Esagono, John Deer, Club Car, EZ-GO, Yamaha, GEM, Clark, Garia and iMob. Even golf trolleys are increasingly being powered with a lithium-ion battery pack.

Compliance light freight and trucks

If you put full or semi-electric vehicles onto the Belgian market, or if you are a manufacturer of (semi) electric vehicles you will need to comply with a number of legal requirements for discarded or reusable batteries, in line with the extended producer responsibility set out in the European directive on discarded batteries and accumulators (2006/66/EC). These requirements include:

  • Registration with the three Regions
  • Annual or monthly reporting of vehicle batteries introduced to the market (including starter batteries, EV batteries and button cell batteries)
  • Responsibility for the collection of these used batteries
  • Transportation by a licensed company approved by the three Regions, in accordance with the regulations governing the transport of hazardous waste (ADR)
  • Processing and recycling of batteries collected by a licensed company approved by the three Regions
  • Achieving the minimum recycling efficiency and collection targets imposed by the EU and the three Regions
  • Reporting to the three Regions
  • Prevention and awareness campaigns

This is a lot. Fortunately, there is a solution (at European level) for each of the above administrative and logistical requirements. Discover the best solution for your company here.

Electric trucks
Electric trucks

Full electric trucks have not yet become commonplace. Interest from the logistics sector, on the other hand, is high. The R&D teams of truck manufacturers and others are therefore working hard at finding solutions. Emission-free and noiseless transport is ideal for urban areas, where improved air quality in times of increasing pressure to reduce emissions has a significant role to play.

Quote

“Air quality will remain an important issue into the future, with zero emissions the goal. Traffic jams in urban areas are still a problem today. The saturation point has almost been reached. So we will need to do more with less.”

Philippe Jacquemyns, Product Manager Volvo Trucks Belux

Meanwhile, it would appear that Europe is not going to relax emission standards.

Quote

“Europe has reduced permissible levels of CO2 emissions and manufacturers have to adapt. There are also significant fines in place for those who transgress. Some manufacturers are setting aside reserves for this. Phasing out diesel technology is not as easy as it sounds. Production needs to be completely converted to the new technology, which requires major investments.”

Philippe Vangeel, Secretary General AVERE

Quote

“The freight transport sector is keen on making that change happen. They want “clean transport” and are willing to take action. The fact is that freight transport makes up 20% of traffic on the roads and is responsible for 50% of emissions.”

Prof. dr. Joeri Van Mierlo - VUB-MOBI

Various manufacturers, including Volvo, Mercedes, Renault and Tesla (with a range of 950 km), have all committed to developing electric trucks. But also DAF is not lagging behind.

The Eindhoven-based manufacturer is working together with VDL on a DAF CF Electric. This is not a conventional truck but an articulated semi-trailer for freight loads up to 40 tons.

In the beginning of 2019, VDL Translift in the Dutch town of Dronten announced it is developing four electric vehicles for waste collection based on the electric drivelines designed with DAF Trucks. The vehicles will be introduced later this year in collaboration with the waste-collection services HVC, ROVA and Stadsbeheer Rotterdam. The trucks have a range of about 100 kilometres and will be deployed in reduced-noise waste collection in residential areas and will have no harmful emissions.

The company EMOSS from Oosterhout in the Netherlands also produces or retro-fits heavy-duty electric trucks. There are at least seven other companies around Europe that sell such retro-fitted trucks: E-Force One (Switzerland), Ginaf, Terberg and Spijkstaal (the Netherlands), EFA-s and Orten (Germany), E-Trucks Europe (Belgium) and Urbaser (Spain).

Volvo Trucks delivered their first full electric vehicles at the beginning of 2019: a waste-disposal truck to the recycling company Renova and a distribution truck to the logistics company DB Schenker and their partner TGM, active in Sweden. Production of the Volvo FL Electric and its more powerful cousin the Volvo FE Electric will begin in the second half of 2019 with a limited number of trucks for the European market.

Mercedes-Benz has also launched a heavy-duty electric truck in its range, the eActros. The batteries are housed in 11 battery packs. Three of these packs are located in the frame, while the other eight are underneath. The battery packs are protected by a steel housing for safety reasons. In the event of a collision, the fasteners will buckle so that the energy of the impact will be channelled past the batteries without damaging them.

During the opening of its new e-mobility plant in the small Basque town of Aduna last year, the Spanish bus manufacturer Irizar presented the prototype of an electric truck.

With its takeover of the French Power Vehicle Innovation PVI in 2017, Renault Trucks acquired a specialist in the field of converting vans, trucks and buses to electric drive and has been experimenting with electric trucks for the past decade. Renault Trucks will be launching a range of electric vehicles in 2019. These purely electric vehicles, which mainly lend themselves to routes in and around town, will be built in series in the Renault Trucks factory of Blainville-sur-Orne.

The Chinese battery manufacturer BYD, which also builds electric-powered buses, is introducing a pair of lightweight electric-powered trucks intended for the European market. And there is also an electric delivery van on the cards.

Finally, there is FUSO (with eCanter) from Mitsubishi with a hybrid and an electric truck model.

Compliance electric trucks

If you put full or semi-electric vehicles onto the Belgian market, or if you are a manufacturer of (semi) electric vehicles you will need to comply with a number of legal requirements for discarded or reusable batteries, in line with the extended producer responsibility set out in the European directive on discarded batteries and accumulators (2006/66/EC). These requirements include:

  • Registration with the three Regions
  • Annual or monthly reporting of vehicle batteries introduced to the market (including starter batteries, EV batteries and button cell batteries)
  • Responsibility for the collection of these used batteries
  • Transportation by a licensed company approved by the three Regions, in accordance with the regulations governing the transport of hazardous waste (ADR)
  • Processing and recycling of batteries collected by a licensed company approved by the three Regions
  • Achieving the minimum recycling efficiency and collection targets imposed by the EU and the three Regions
  • Reporting to the three Regions
  • Prevention and awareness campaigns

This is a lot. Fortunately, there is a solution (at European level) for each of the above administrative and logistical requirements. Discover the best solution for your company here.

E-buses
E-buses

The six leading bus manufacturers in Europe are Daimler, Iveco, MAN, Scania, Volvo and Irizar. The market for electric buses is growing every day. Public transport authorities and bus operators are also planning to purchase electric buses and in a number of cases there is a mandatory requirement in procurement.

VDL Bus & Coach (Jonckheere) is the bus division of VDL Groep. The company has factories in the Netherlands and Belgium. Since April 2018, 100 VDL Citea articulated electric buses have been deployed at and around Schiphol and on public transport routes in the Amstelland-Meerlanden region.

Van Hool nv is a Belgian family business that builds buses, coaches and commercial vehicles such as semi-trailers and tank containers in Koningshooikt near Lier. In 2019, Van Hool will introduce the first full electric-powered coach to the North American market. Van Hool has selected Proterra, a leading manufacturer of energy-storage solutions for heavy vehicles based in California, for the supply of battery technology. The 100% electric-powered vehicle will be used primarily for commuting employees and for transporting people over short distances. The coach is being designed by the Belgian parent company in Koningshooikt, where the first prototypes are also being built.

In the Benelux, there is also the Dutch bus manufacturer Ebusco. The Ebusco 2.2 was till now mainly manufactured in China (70%) before being finished off in the Dutch town of Deurne (30%). In 2012, Ebusco was one of the first companies to launch an electric bus. The company recently decided to move its production of electric buses from China to Deurne. The new 2.2 model will be fitted with a new battery cell, which produces more energy, and a more energy-efficient heat-pump system. The use of a composite chassis means it is 35% lighter, which in turn results in lower energy consumption. Therefore, either a smaller battery pack is enough or, in order to travel greater distances without having to stop and recharge, the same battery pack can be used. One of the companies Ebusco is collaborating with in Belgium is Multiobus in Tienen. Multiobus, with which Bebat is collaborating as part of its school programme, is the first private bus company in Flanders to deploy two electric buses in regular service with the public transport operator De Lijn.

Another company investing heavily in e-mobility is the Spanish-Basque Irizar, which offers a total package, from electric buses to the charging systems for those buses.

Mercedes presented its first electric bus in Stuttgart in September 2018. The manufacturer will begin series production of the 12-metre-long vehicle in 2019. The initial Citaro models will only be plug-in versions. Mercedes will then offer various quick-charging pantograph versions from the end of 2019. The first of these will be powered via a roof-mounted pantograph, but later also via a pantograph on the charger using the OppCharge system.

The Citaro will be fitted with AKASOL lithium-ion battery modules with a maximum capacity of 243 kWh. That will be achieved with 10 units of 180 cells: four in the rear and two to six on the roof.

In addition to the familiar Darmstadt-based AKASOL (Germany), other major Li-ion cell and battery manufacturers include Samsung SDI, LG-Chem, Sony, Saft and BYD. Besides these, there are: ADS-TEC, BMZ - The Innovation Group, Liacon, Leclanché, ECC Schletter, Hoppecke and Super-B.

Two other companies are the Chinese BYD (Build Your Dreams) and the Scottish ADL (Alexander Dennis Limited). BYD is the largest battery and electric bus manufacturer in the world, besides other players active in Europe from China, such as GOLDEN DRAGON. The European BYD buses were produced by Auto Group Motors in Bulgaria and since 2017, there has been a production facility in Hungary. ADL is a British bus manufacturer based in Scotland. It is the largest bus and coach manufacturer in the United Kingdom and one of the world’s fastest growing bus manufacturers.

Other electric bus manufacturers include Solaris and AMZ from Poland and Alstom (as train manufacturer), besides smaller players in Eastern Europe and Turkey, such as Karsan, Bozankaya and BMZ. In 2018, the Spanish CAF Group announced the acquisition of Solaris Bus & Coach.

E-bus battery

The French company Bolloré has been building its electric-powered Bluebus since 2015 under the brand Blue Solutions. Another French manufacturer is Heuliez Bus. In 1998, Renault acquired the shares from Volvo and became full owner of Heuliez Bus. A year later, Renault merged its bus division with the bus division of Iveco to create Irisbus. Since 2002, the Irisbus Civis and Irisbus Cristalis have been produced by Heuliez Bus. Moreover, Heuliez Bus continues to manufacture buses under its own brand.

The Paris-based public transport operator RATP recently ordered 800 electric buses. This makes almost a quarter of its fleet electric-powered. It is also the largest procurement of e-buses in Europe and one of the largest in the world

It represents the first concrete step in the strategy of RATP and transport authority and Île-de-France Mobilités to run 80 per cent zero emission buses by 2025.

According to forecasts, battery packs will be able to store more energy in the same space and weight within five years. A number of manufacturers have announced that their electric buses will have sufficient range to fulfil all their daily commitments.

The question remains whether quick charging is actually a transitional technology and will only prove to be useful during this transitional phase when e-buses are being introduced.

quote

“Will technology have moved on over the next decade to enable e-buses to complete their daily journeys without the need of a pantograph?”

When it comes to a second life for e-bus batteries, there is the example of the project developed in Gothenburg by Volvo in which batteries are reused for domestic applications in apartment buildings. The batteries can be used to store the extra energy from solar panels. E-bus batteries are indeed ideally suited to be used in new applications.

Read more about the role of Volvo e-bus batteries for energy storage here.

The ZEB platform brings together a number of market parties and local authorities from the ZEB ecosystem in Flanders (operators, bus manufacturers, energy suppliers, manufacturers and installers of charging stations and research institutes) in order to:

  • exchange good practices from across Europe
  • assess the current Belgian market
  • draw up a vision statement or final report.

Various, often complementary, methods can be used to recharge electric buses. They can be recharged in the depot using a charging cable (depot charging) and/or on the road with a pantograph (opportunity charging). Companies such as ABB, Heliox, Opbrid, Ekoenergetyka and Siemens have developed expertise in the field and deliver charging solutions for e-buses. When assessing the distribution of charging stations and the ability to connect to the power-grid, it is also important to consider the possibilities of smart charging (varying the power capacity based on the availability of a grid connection and/or energy prices) and the use of stationary batteries. A lot of experience has already been gained with smart charging of electric buses, whether or not in combination with stationary storage.

At its depot in Tienen, Multiobus invested in 500 solar panels that were connected to stationary batteries.

The ZeEUS demonstration project in Münster (Germany) analysed smart charging by placing an additional 53 kWh stationary battery at the depot to reduce the impact of the quick charger (max. 500 kW) on the low-voltage network. In the longer term, batteries from disused electrical buses can also be converted into stationary batteries and as such given a second life before being recycled.

In Belgium, public transport companies De Lijn, TEC and the MIVB are experimenting with full electric and hybrid buses. Some buses in Bruges are even fitted for wireless charging, enabling them to drive for 45 minutes after being charged for 12 minutes. Hybrid buses drive around the city centre of Namur and Charleroi. It is striking that the Walloon, Brussels and Flemish Regions have all chosen to deploy hybrid buses alongside diesel vehicles. Hybrid variants are often a good solution for public transport in urban areas due to their continuous stopping and starting. Currently, there is an absence of an appropriate charging infrastructure for electric buses. Finally, Brussels Airport Company (BAC) recently purchased thirty 12-metre BYD e-buses.

Suppliers of buses and charging infrastructure are eager to work together to promote interoperability.

OppCharge brings together the leading suppliers in Europe in developing a common interface based on established standards.

OppCharge is designed for the high-power charging infrastructure (> 150 kW) and uses standardised protocols. It also enables different charging strategies. If the number of kilometres driven remains low, you can decide to charge only at night and eliminate the need to invest in additional chargers while on the road. But in this stage, they have yet to consider the developments in the field of batteries. BYD is one of those investing in that technology. As a manufacturer of battery cells, BYD can also offer relatively attractive e-buses with large battery systems. Other bus manufacturers are choosing smaller battery packs in combination with (quick) charging during the day. The battery might then be cheaper, but it does require an additional charging infrastructure.

Compliance for e-buses

If you put full or semi-electric vehicles onto the Belgian market, or if you are a manufacturer of (semi) electric vehicles you will need to comply with a number of legal requirements for discarded or reusable batteries, in line with the extended producer responsibility set out in the European directive on discarded batteries and accumulators (2006/66/EC). These requirements include:

  • Registration with the three Regions
  • Annual or monthly reporting of vehicle batteries introduced to the market (including starter batteries, EV batteries and button cell batteries)
  • Responsibility for the collection of these used batteries
  • Transportation by a licensed company approved by the three Regions, in accordance with the regulations governing the transport of hazardous waste (ADR)
  • Processing and recycling of batteries collected by a licensed company approved by the three Regions
  • Achieving the minimum recycling efficiency and collection targets imposed by the EU and the three Regions
  • Reporting to the three Regions
  • Prevention and awareness campaigns

This is a lot. Fortunately, there is a solution (at European level) for each of the above administrative and logistical requirements. Discover the best solution for your company here.

Construction Equipment
Construction Equipment

Volvo Construction Equipment is switching to electric motors for the compact segment, in particular excavators and wheel loaders. It will certainly be in the spotlight at Bauma 2019, the first major industrial event since Volvo CE announced the news. It also means that Volvo is the first construction-equipment manufacturer to venture into electric. The phased introduction is planned in 2020.

Autonomous construction equipment is also no longer just a pipe dream. In early 2019, Volvo Trucks signed the first agreement for a transport solution with autonomous trucks.

quote

There are a number of demonstration projects ongoing with autonomous buses and excavators. Autonomous vehicles certainly form part of the future.

Philippe Jacquemyns, Volvo Trucks BeLux

Watch a demo of an autonomous truck and wheel loader here.

The eDumper Electric Dump Truck with 58 tons unladen weight and 65 ton load capacity is a fine example of technology from Switzerland. The interdisciplinary collaboration (the basic dump truck is from Komatsu) also secured no less than three world records in 2018. The eDumper is the largest and strongest battery-powered vehicle in the world and also boasts the largest battery ever built for a motorised vehicle, namely 4.5 tons.

Various manufacturers of civil engineering and construction equipment are also gradually introducing hybrid and electric-powered excavators and earthmoving machines. In addition to Volvo, Hyundai (in collaboration with Cummins) also introduced electric-powered equipment to the market last year, as did both Caterpillar and Hitachi recently.

A transition has taken place in the world of electric forklifts from DC to AC technology, which has resulted in increased productivity, improved speed and longer battery life. Almost all recent electric forklifts (Jungheinrich, Still, Linde, BYD, Toyota, Yale, Hyster, Unicarriers, Clark and Komatsu) are increasingly available with a 48-volt lithium-ion battery. This not only applies to electric forklifts, but also to electric pallet trucks, reach trucks, stackers, order-picking trucks, narrow-aisle trucks and warehouse trucks or tractors for internal transport in general. This means that battery replacement and maintenance are no longer necessary as was previously the case with conventional traction batteries, which in turn saves time and storage space.

The risk of damage to a battery or charger has decreased because battery changes are a thing of the past. These powerful lithium-ion batteries do not suffer from internal resistance, so that they barely lose capacity, in contrast to conventional lead-acid batteries. Forklift batteries are usually available in 24-, 48- and 90-volt versions.

Construction equipment

Compliance for construction equipment

If you put full or semi-electric vehicles onto the Belgian market, or if you are a manufacturer of (semi) electric vehicles you will need to comply with a number of legal requirements for discarded or reusable batteries, in line with the extended producer responsibility set out in the European directive on discarded batteries and accumulators (2006/66/EC). These requirements include:

  • Registration with the three Regions
  • Annual or monthly reporting of vehicle batteries introduced to the market (including starter batteries, EV batteries and button cell batteries)
  • Responsibility for the collection of these used batteries
  • Transportation by a licensed company approved by the three Regions, in accordance with the regulations governing the transport of hazardous waste (ADR)
  • Processing and recycling of batteries collected by a licensed company approved by the three Regions
  • Achieving the minimum recycling efficiency and collection targets imposed by the EU and the three Regions
  • Reporting to the three Regions
  • Prevention and awareness campaigns

This is a lot. Fortunately, there is a solution (at European level) for each of the above administrative and logistical requirements. Discover the best solution for your company here.

IWheels, e-scooters and e-motorcycles
IWheels, e-scooters and e-motorcycles

Since becoming motorised, they have become a prevalent feature around busy cities: electric scooters have grown in popularity particularly among adults. Legally, these vehicles are regarded in the same way as bicycles and may therefore not only be ridden on cycle paths but also, in the absence of a cycle path, on the road. They have a maximum speed limit of 25 km/h. In addition to e-scooters, more and more other forms of iWheels are appearing on the streets, including Segways, trikes, skateboards, Hoverboards, mini-scooters and monowheels: all creative attempts to avoid traffic congestion in the city.

The batteries of monowheels, for example, come in a number of capacities. This has an effect on both the distance the monowheel can travel and its weight. A capacity of 340 watt hours is necessary for the average commuter who uses the monowheel on a daily basis. Depending on the model, one battery will have sufficient power for a distance of 30 to 40 kilometres at the maximum speed and at a lower speed this distance will be even further. Monowheels are usually fitted with batteries from well-known brands like Panasonic and Sony. The batteries last for about 1,000 cycles. This means that they can be fully empty and recharged up to 1,000 times. This equates to an average lifespan of three years.

Other vehicles that have witnessed an enormous boom in development are electric wheelchairs and battery-powered scooters for people with a disability, which are often distributed through the health-insurance medical-supply stores.

E-wheels

Full electric motorcycles have yet to become fully established. They are still a niche with 0.75% of the total motorcycle market. That said, the future for electric motorcycles remains promising, seeing that their range – or time between having to recharge – is getting ever greater. You no longer have to go out of your way to find a quiet, smooth and fast electric motorcycle on the Belgian market today.

Various motorcycle brands such as Zero motorcycles, KTM, Brammo, BMW, Johammer, Energica, Kuberg and Tacita have been marketing electric models for a number of years now. The most well-known brand, Harley Davidson, will be introducing the electric “Livewire” this year.

The weight of the battery means that the average e-motorcycle is heavier than comparable petrol-powered versions. The majority of electric motorcycles can be recharged through the power socket at home.

And the average range is 40 kilometres for every hour of recharging. A number of models also feature quick-charging technology, which means they can be recharged much quicker through a Wallbox or public charging station.

There are many brands marketing e-scooters today, including Askoll, Govecs, NIU, Torro, Volta, Vectrix, Eccity, Vespa, Kymco, Kumpan, Yadea, Emco, EVOmax, Stigo, Super soco and Tilmax. They combine low power consumption, less noise and maintenance, no road or vehicle registration tax, zero CO2 emissions and, last but not least, they are subsidised in Flanders.

Figures published by ACEM – the European Association of Motorcycle Manufacturers – show that sales of electric mopeds is witnessing a significant rise everywhere. In 2018, 39,701 new electric mopeds were registered in the EU, an increase of no less than 46.9% compared to 2017. And sales of electric motorcycles are also on the rise. In total, 7,478 new electric motorcycles were registered in the EU in 2018. That is an increase of 81.5% compared to 2017.

Compliance for IWheels, e-scooters and e-motorcycles

If you put full or semi-electric vehicles onto the Belgian market, or if you are a manufacturer of (semi) electric vehicles you will need to comply with a number of legal requirements for discarded or reusable batteries, in line with the extended producer responsibility set out in the European directive on discarded batteries and accumulators (2006/66/EC). These requirements include:

  • Registration with the three Regions
  • Annual or monthly reporting of vehicle batteries introduced to the market (including starter batteries, EV batteries and button cell batteries)
  • Responsibility for the collection of these used batteries
  • Transportation by a licensed company approved by the three Regions, in accordance with the regulations governing the transport of hazardous waste (ADR)
  • Processing and recycling of batteries collected by a licensed company approved by the three Regions
  • Achieving the minimum recycling efficiency and collection targets imposed by the EU and the three Regions
  • Reporting to the three Regions
  • Prevention and awareness campaigns

This is a lot. Fortunately, there is a solution (at European level) for each of the above administrative and logistical requirements. Discover the best solution for your company here.

Electric bicycles or e-bikes
Electric bicycles or e-bikes

What is the most popular electric vehicle? That is without doubt the electric bicycle or e-bike. No less than 141,028 new electric bicycles were sold in 2017, of which 95% were fitted with a lithium-ion battery. Not only that, 27,000 replacement batteries were also sold in this period.

The figures available to Bebat, concerning the amount sold in 2018 and the number of batteries collected, confirm the rising trend.

The Netherlands, a country renowned for the popularity of cycling, has also managed to shake off the old-fashioned image of the e-bike being for pensioners. And this is also reflected in the figures: for the first time, sales of e-bikes exceed that of normal bicycles. The bicycle with pedal assistance is clearly on the rise. It would appear that the e-bike is convincing the environmentally conscious Dutch people to leave their cars at home.

As part of its long-term plan to show its citizens the benefits of cycling – also in the hilly landscape of the Walloon Region – the Walloon government launched a pilot project: “Je teste l’électrique!” (http://mobilite.wallonie.be/home/politiques-de-mobilite/wallonie-cyclable/le-velo-a-assistance-electrique/je-teste-lelectrique.html). Participants are able to try out an e-bike for 15 days. The project itself will run for 3 years in 12 periods, during which other interested individuals can participate. The project involves the collaboration of local bicycle shops. In the Walloon and Brussels Regions, a number of municipalities have also set aside subsidies for people who want to purchase an e-bike. Find out more about that via this mobility portal.

Pro Velo is facilitating the transition to the bicycles from six locations in Brussels and the Walloon Region. Since 1992, the mobility experts of this non-profit organisation have been supporting individuals, government bodies and organisations with customised services and solutions, in addition to assisting present and future cyclists. This includes organising cycling skills training for children and adults.

The Brussels Region offers a 500 euro subsidy for individuals who purchase a bicycle, irrespective of whether it is electric or not, and hand in a number plate. More information about this can be found on the website of Prime Bruxell’AIR.

An overview of tax benefits and subsidies when purchasing an e-bike throughout the country can be found on this website: https://mobilit.belgium.be/nl/mobiliteit/personenvervoer/fiets

2016

Put on market

Bebat figures show that sales of electric bicycles peaked in 2016: more than 90,000 items. On top of that, approximately 18,000 replacement batteries were also sold in this period. In total, about 350 tons of e-bike batteries were sold, almost 100% of which were lithium-ion. Those batteries constituted 23% of all lithium-ion batteries in Belgium.

Collection

The amount of bicycle batteries collected also peaked: up 75% in weight compared to 2015. The composition of the totality of collected batteries varied: 75% of the weight was lithium-ion (in 2015, 62% and in 2014, 55%).

The majority of batteries Bebat collected in 2016 were sold in 2012-2013. This shows that the average lifespan of a bicycle battery is four to five years.

2017

Put on market

In 2017, the rising trend continued with no less than 113,566 new electric bicycles sold, of which 95% were fitted with a lithium-ion battery. Not only that, 27,462 replacement batteries were also sold in this period. In comparison with 2016, therefore, sales increased further by 50%.

Collection

The collection of e-bike batteries in Belgium also increased in 2017. We registered a 33% increase in weight in 2017 compared to 2016. While sales of e-bike batteries comprised approximately 95% lithium-ion batteries in 2017, the assortment of collected batteries was very different. In 2017, 65% of all e-bike batteries collected by Bebat in weight were rechargeable lithium batteries, compared to 75% in 2016 and 66% in 2015. The average weight of an e-bike battery that was collected in 2017 was 3.4 kg.

2018

Put on market

The increase in sales of e-bike batteries continued in 2018, with 99% of these being rechargeable lithium batteries. Our figures show that no less than 130,429 new e-bikes were sold and 50,074 replacement batteries. In comparison with 2017, this is a further increase of 28%.

Collection

The number of bicycle batteries collected in 2018 increased by approximately 70% compared to 2017. In 2018, 79% of the collected batteries were rechargeable lithium batteries and in 2017, that was 65%. The average weight of an e-bike battery that was collected in 2018 was again 3.4 kg.

Compliance for electric bicycles or e-bikes

If you put full or semi-electric vehicles onto the Belgian market, or if you are a manufacturer of (semi) electric vehicles you will need to comply with a number of legal requirements for discarded or reusable batteries, in line with the extended producer responsibility set out in the European directive on discarded batteries and accumulators (2006/66/EC). These requirements include:

  • Registration with the three Regions
  • Annual or monthly reporting of vehicle batteries introduced to the market (including starter batteries, EV batteries and button cell batteries)
  • Responsibility for the collection of these used batteries
  • Transportation by a licensed company approved by the three Regions, in accordance with the regulations governing the transport of hazardous waste (ADR)
  • Processing and recycling of batteries collected by a licensed company approved by the three Regions
  • Achieving the minimum recycling efficiency and collection targets imposed by the EU and the three Regions
  • Reporting to the three Regions
  • Prevention and awareness campaigns

This is a lot. Fortunately, there is a solution (at European level) for each of the above administrative and logistical requirements. Discover the best solution for your company here.

Drones and model aircraft
Drones and model aircraft

Drones are probably not the first things that come to mind when you think about e-mobility, right?

A drone is an unmanned aircraft with a maximum take-off mass not exceeding 150 kg and controlled from the ground. A model aircraft is a remotely controlled aircraft exclusively used for sports and recreational purposes.

Major manufacturers of drones include DJI, Parrot, Power Vision, 3DR, Yuneec, EHang, Walkera and Syma. Hubsan is the leading producer of recreational drones.

Drones are so popular that there is even an entire community of interested parties. Find out more at https://euka.org/.

Image meta

A drone can also be catalogued as a state aircraft used for military, customs, police, search and rescue, fire-fighting and coastguard purposes or for operations or analogous activities under the control and responsibility of the state, undertaken in the public interest by an organisation requested by public authorities.

A recent study published by the Roland Berger company on the evolution and development of drones provides an interesting outlook for the coming years (Dutch link): (https://mobilit.belgium.be/nl/luchtvaart/drones).

Modern drones, model aircraft and other radio-controlled electronics today usually have a LiPo battery under the bonnet. LiPo stands for lithium polymer, powerful batteries that are also much lighter than NiCd and NiMH batteries. That said, a LiPo battery is known as a battery with a manual. In other words, you need to know in advance how to handle, charge and store them.

Compliance for drones

If you put full or semi-electric vehicles onto the Belgian market, or if you are a manufacturer of (semi) electric vehicles you will need to comply with a number of legal requirements for discarded or reusable batteries, in line with the extended producer responsibility set out in the European directive on discarded batteries and accumulators (2006/66/EC). These requirements include:

  • Registration with the three Regions
  • Annual or monthly reporting of vehicle batteries introduced to the market (including starter batteries, EV batteries and button cell batteries)
  • Responsibility for the collection of these used batteries
  • Transportation by a licensed company approved by the three Regions, in accordance with the regulations governing the transport of hazardous waste (ADR)
  • Processing and recycling of batteries collected by a licensed company approved by the three Regions
  • Achieving the minimum recycling efficiency and collection targets imposed by the EU and the three Regions
  • Reporting to the three Regions
  • Prevention and awareness campaigns

This is a lot. Fortunately, there is a solution (at European level) for each of the above administrative and logistical requirements. Discover the best solution for your company here.

Cruising in silence with e-yachts
Cruising in silence with e-yachts

Simply replacing a yacht’s diesel engine with an electric one has until now proven over-ambitious. However, this does not mean that the e-mobility trend has passed pleasure boating by. A modern 12-metre yacht needs 70 to 104 kW to maintain motion under all circumstances and with the necessary leeway. This not only continues to demand a large bank of batteries, the range can also sometimes pose a problem. And this is why many people today still prefer a hybrid installation. In practice, the electric drive is often an add-on for a yacht, not the sole power source.

Nevertheless, new e-mobility technology is being developed to help advance the evolution of yachts:

  • New engines, new batteries with greater capacity that are charged with renewable energy, as well as improved digital control systems for better power utilisation.
  • A lot is also expected from new types of battery such as graphene-polymer and lithium-air batteries. The latter can actually be produced for less than one-fifth of the price and it can power vehicles and yachts for five times longer.
Jacht

A group of French students recently sailed around the world in their yacht Amasia powered by an electric motor that is mainly charged by the movement of the water.

All pleasure boats in Amsterdam must be fossil-free by 2023, which in practice means turning to electric power and similar measures have been introduced by the city of Utrecht. Elsewhere, electric power is becoming mandatory throughout the Netherlands in a number of nature parks.These measures have a direct impact on innovation in the market.

In February 2019, the Sendo Liner became the first zero-emission hybrid vessel for inland shipping to be launched. It will sail through Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Friesland. It is also the first inland-shipping vessel to sail completely emission-free on batteries. The electric-powered container barge is designed by Sendo Shipping and Concordia-Damen and is equipped with a pack of lithium-polymer batteries with an energy capacity of 564 kWh! The lithium-polymer battery pack is supplied by EST-Floattech and comprises 52 Green Orca batteries spread over 4 banks of 13 batteries, each with a capacity of 136 kWh and totalling 564 kWh. Read more.

The start-up company Voltogo focuses on the electrification of existing vessels. It has developed a plug-and-play set with a battery and engine and a network of quick-charging stations. In doing so, the company aims to make it easier for boat owners to transfer to electric power and provide an answer to the challenges imposed by the stricter demands on pleasure boating. Co-founder Job Veltman explains more about it in this clip (Dutch clip).

Volvo Penta introduced a hybrid solution for the IPS drive system in 2018, helping vessels to realise “zero-emissions” and enabling them to sail in environmentally sensitive areas using the full-electric mode. Read more.

Liso Yachts launched the first electric luxury speedboat at the beginning of September 2018. It is for 95% recyclable and comes in two versions. The Liso Aquamare 750 GTE is powered by a motor very similar to that of an electric bus.

It can sail for 9 hours at an average speed of 40 km/h. The battery can be recharged in any country. The Liso Aquamare T is powered by a V8 motor, but can be converted to an e-boat. The target when launched in 2018 was to build 25 Aquamares within a year. CEO Dirk De Munter speaking on the news channel Kanaal Z (Dutch Clip).

Compliance e-yachts

If you put full or semi-electric vehicles onto the Belgian market, or if you are a manufacturer of (semi) electric vehicles you will need to comply with a number of legal requirements for discarded or reusable batteries, in line with the extended producer responsibility set out in the European directive on discarded batteries and accumulators (2006/66/EC). These requirements include:

  • Registration with the three Regions
  • Annual or monthly reporting of vehicle batteries introduced to the market (including starter batteries, EV batteries and button cell batteries)
  • Responsibility for the collection of these used batteries
  • Transportation by a licensed company approved by the three Regions, in accordance with the regulations governing the transport of hazardous waste (ADR)
  • Processing and recycling of batteries collected by a licensed company approved by the three Regions
  • Achieving the minimum recycling efficiency and collection targets imposed by the EU and the three Regions
  • Reporting to the three Regions
  • Prevention and awareness campaigns

This is a lot. Fortunately, there is a solution (at European level) for each of the above administrative and logistical requirements. Discover the best solution for your company here.

Used batteries & regulations

quote

I am putting a battery-powered vehicle onto the Belgian market. What must I do to ensure compliance with the extended producer responsibility?

All registered companies, of whatever form, that manufacture products or introduce them to the Belgian market, including e-mobility means of transport, must comply with a number of legal requirements, in line with the extended producer responsibility set out in the European directive on discarded batteries and accumulators (2006/66/EC). These requirements include:

  • Registration with the three Regions
  • Annual or monthly reporting of vehicle batteries introduced to the market (including starter batteries, EV batteries and button cell batteries)
  • Transportation by a licensed company approved by the three Regions, in accordance with the regulations governing the transport of hazardous waste (ADR)
  • Processing and recycling of batteries collected by a licensed company approved by the three Regions
  • Achieving the minimum recycling efficiency and collection targets imposed by the EU and the three Regions
  • Reporting to the three Regions
  • Prevention and awareness campaigns

These tasks are carried out for all types of battery and weight categories (including button cell batteries), industrial batteries (such as traction batteries) and automotive batteries (such as lead starter batteries and Li-ion starter batteries). These legal requirements also apply to activities in which such batteries and accumulators are reintroduced to the Belgian market as reusable or second-life batteries.

To comply with all these requirements, manufacturers can draw up an individual plan or join a cooperative operational collection, sorting and recycling system. The following provides an overview of the cooperative systems that are available for each category of battery:

  • For lead starter batteries from all types of vehicle, you can become a participant of Bebat
  • For reusable and discarded industrial batteries (lithium and NiMH batteries) above 20 kg and 60 volt DC from category M1 passenger cars (HEV hybrid, plug-in, electric or fuel cell), category N1 electric vehicles for freight transport (small vans up to 3.5 tons) and category L mopeds and motorbikes, you can become a participant of Bebat or Febelauto

  • For other reusable and discarded industrial batteries from e-scooters, e-bikes, iWheels, Hoverboards, micro-mobility vehicles, M2-M3 buses, N2-N3 freight transport (trucks, tractors, etc.), L6-L7 G (off-road) and T quadricycles, e-boats (recreational shipping, inland shipping, merchant shipping and fishing) and electric golf carts, etc., you can become a participant of Bebat

  • For other batteries from the aforementioned means of transport (button cell batteries) used, for example, in car keys and in tyre-pressure sensors, you can become a participant of Bebat.

(*) Companies that are affiliated with Febelauto for processing reusable or discarded industrial Lithium batteries from electric cars (HEVs) must still become a participant of Bebat for the other batteries in the same vehicle.

This link provides an overview of the various organisations in the market that can help ease the administrative obligations and manage the operational implementation of the collection, transportation and recycling of discarded and reusable batteries.

Baterijen

The batteries are mounted low for optimum weight distribution, but have manufacturers paid sufficient attention to their longevity? There are a multitude of ways to get around by electric power today. And at the heart of the e-mobility story is the battery. But what do we do with EV batteries once their first life has expired? What are the challenges ahead of us?

To achieve the intended positive environmental impact of electric mobility, it is crucial to know what to do with the EV battery at the end of its first life. Or put another way: when its capacity has dropped to 70 to 80% of the initial capacity or when it is damaged or defective. One major advantage: a discarded EV battery does not necessarily need to be thrown away.

One major advantage:

A discarded EV battery does not necessarily need to be thrown away.

Recycling of EV batteries is not straightforward, but it is possible. The valuable raw materials like lithium, cobalt and nickel can be extracted. To do this, a combination of pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy is used. The raw materials can then be used a number of times for the production of new EV batteries without any loss in functionality. This results in a circular value chain.

Prognose:

More than 5,500 EFV batteries will need to be collected in our country in 2025; by 2030 this figure will have risen to 18,800.
(Source: Möbius study commissioned by Bebat).

  • Insufficient or erroneous information available about the composition of the battery
  • Lack of standardisation in design and labelling
  • Lack of recycling-friendly design of the battery
  • Cost of collecting and transporting used batteries
  • Liability for the battery in second-life applications
  • Administration and costs associated with the transportation of hazardous waste.

Recycling reduces the waste and prevents toxic substances, such as lead, cobalt and chromium, from being released into the environment. Moreover, it also makes us less dependent on the supply of these raw materials. Such raw materials will be in great demand once e-mobility really gets going. Continued access to these raw materials can be considered a key challenge, even though the economic importance has grown tremendously since 2006 and will continue to grow.

According to many, recycling is also the third possibility, which will only become an option after two other possibilities have been considered:

  • the battery will first be assessed whether it can be restored or processed for a second life as an EV battery (Re-use), or

  • as a device for energy storage (Re-purposing).

2.1 Collection and transport

The collection and transport of EV batteries must be done with the necessary caution.

Truck in forest

The collector has to know about what type of battery it is. The individuals disposing themselves of the batteries are usually aware of their composition: nickel-metal hydride or lithium-ion for EVs. This latter type of battery is subject to European ADR legislation (Accord européen relatif au transport international des marchandises Dangereuses par Route). The transport of hazardous materials is governed by specific ADR regulations, including the way it is packaged and how and via which routes this transportation may occur.

An important question is whether the EV battery is damaged or not, especially after an accident, as this will determine the further process. Damaged batteries are then sorted on the basis of whether they are critical or not critical. It is not always easy to determine whether a battery is actually damaged. If necessary, Bebat will send experts to the location for an assessment.

The carrier is also partly responsible for complying with ADR legislation. Regional inspectors oversee whether that legislation is adhered to in Belgium.

Bebat has safety, high-voltage and ADR expertise in-house. These experts can provide clear guidance in relation to batteries.

2.2 Dismantling

Once the choice has been made on whether the battery will be further processed for reuse, repurposing or recycling, the next step is the dismantling. The dismantling of e-mobility batteries must take place in a controlled environment due to the safety risks involved.

Risk factors of EV batteries:

  • Overheating
  • Fire
  • Gassing (some gases are toxic)
  • Instability (extinguishing is sometimes complicated due to risks of reignition)

Bebat has high-voltage experts in-house who have been specially trained to dismantling these batteries safely. This means that the battery pack, in which cooling conduits can be integrated, will be removed to free up the battery cells.

The cells will then be incrementally removed, while the voltage is constantly measured.

This means that the battery pack, in which cooling conduits can be integrated, will be removed to free up the battery cells. The cells will then be incrementally removed, while the voltage is constantly measured. This process will also reveal which cells are defective and which are still in perfect working order. Defective cells can then be dismantled for recycling to recover raw materials.

The dismantling is mainly determined by the composition of the battery. Not all e-mobility batteries are the same. There are even significant differences among the same means of transportation.

Examples:

  • The battery of a BMW i3 is made up of 84 lithium-ion prismatic cells
  • The battery of a Nissan Leaf is made up of lithium-polymer batteries
  • The battery of a Tesla is made up of lithium-ion cylindrical batteries.
Image meta

Dismantling batteries, how is that done exactly?

quote

The diversity of EV batteries arriving at Bebat/Sortbat to be dismantled – more than 10,000 EV batteries sorted in recent years – is enormous. Some are defective or damaged, while others are end-of-life: that is, at the end of their first life.

Geert Allard, Operationeel Manager bij Sortbat

Operational Manager Geert Allard explains more about what happens to EV batteries after they arrive at Sortbat, the Bebat facility where batteries are sorted and EV batteries are examined, dismantled and prepared for recycling, reuse or a second-life application.

quote

An EV battery from a car is the size of a wooden pallet and takes up the floor of the vehicle. The battery is usually screwed down in a solid housing, a protective metal casing that ensures no water, dust or dirt can reach the battery. It is essential that the dismantling procedure always takes place with extreme care. Some brands have specific guidelines that need to be adhered to. Aftercare is always customised work at Sortbat.

Geert Allard, Operationeel Manager bij Sortbat

  • Opening the housing. The protective casing around the battery pack unscrewed and adhesives and silicon resins removed. There are also often electrical components and conduits for coolants and ventilation that need to be removed.

  • Voltage measurements. This takes place prior to and during the dismantling. The modules/cells are gradually removed from the battery pack in order to reduce the voltage for safe processing. Ultimately, all the cells are removed.

  • An EV runs on high voltage. The dismantling procedure therefore requires skilled operators, custom tools, protective gloves and adherence to general safety guidelines.

  • Temperature measurements. Besides voltage, temperature is also measured by means of a heat scan. If this rises above the ambient temperature, it is an indication that something is amiss. Cells that show no deviation from the ambient temperature can be safely stored

  • After dismantling. Once the cells have been dismantled, they are taken to a specialised recycling company. The recycler is selected on the basis of the client’s wishes and the specific requirements. Raw materials, especially metals such as cadmium, cobalt, tin and nickel, are usually recovered.

Assessment

quote

Some batteries are eligible for reuse or second-life repurposing applications. Test equipment is used to determine whether these batteries are suitable for this, which involves charging the cells a number of times over 12 to 24 hours. The measured values are then compared with those of a new battery. A decision is then made on the basis of these measurements as to whether the battery should be sent to a partner who can then prepare it for reuse or a second-life application, such as energy storage. The partners collaborating with Sortbat for recycling are recognised recycling processors who meet all the environmental conditions.
Sortbat employees are skilled in both mechanical and electrical engineering. After completion of a specific course at authorised trainings centres, they continue their training on the job. Together they ensure that clients can turn to Sortbat for all their battery problems.

Geert Allard, Operational manager at Sortbat.

2.3 Assessment

The diagnosis or assessment is important in order to determine the appropriate following steps. During this process, the condition of the battery and the cells are assessed in order to determine whether they are eligible for remanufacturing, reuse, repurposing (in second-life applications) or recycling of the raw materials.

Often, a remanufacturing phase takes place, during which the battery is restored and reconstructed. Reuse is when the battery is processed so that it can be used again for traction as an EV battery. Repurposing is when the battery is processed for a new use, typically as a unit in energy storage systems. This context is often referred to as second-life applications.

2.4 Reuse

As already mentioned, an EV battery is a collection of battery cells that are “packed” together. A few poorly functioning cells can cause the entire battery to underperform. Individual cells are then checked and replaced if necessary. Studies show that in order to reuse the battery, on average up to 15% of the cells need to be replaced. Moreover, removed battery cells can also be processed for reuse or dismantled for recycling.

It also means that it is possible to restore discarded batteries, such as bicycle batteries, for reuse.

2.5 Repurposing (second life)

Used EV batteries with less than 70 to 80% of their original capacity or which are unsuitable for vehicles can be deployed in energy storage systems. This means that they can be used for renewable energy purposes, for example, as generated by solar panels, and integrated into the national power grid.

  • Each battery is assessed to determine the energy capacity and quality.
  • Trained employees are responsible for dismantling the battery. This is not (yet) an automated process.
  • Repurposing EV batteries for energy storage does not require any redesign or high remanufacturing costs.
  • The end product has a higher value than extracted raw materials after recycling. It also has less impact on the environment than when new batteries are manufactured.
Second-life electric vehicle battery annual available capacity

* Annual available capacity of second-life electric vehicle battery

Read more at: https://www.idtechex.com/research/reports/second-life-electricvehicle-batteries-2019-2029-000626.asp?viewopt=desc

re-purposing

Case: Electric cars as energy source for whole neighbourhood in Utrecht

Within four or five years, electric cars will provide the entire Lombok neighbourhood in Utrecht with energy. The European Union wants to clear the way for this method of storing energy. Local entrepreneur Robin Berg and his company LomboXnet has been busy for a number of years looking for a new way for storing energy: electricity from wind turbines or solar panels is stored in the batteries of electric cars of local residents in the neighbourhood. Read more about this (Dutch link): https://www.ad.nl/utrecht/elektrische-auto-s-in-lombok-straks-energiefabriek-voor-helewijk~a76f4826/

Case: Bus batteries provide energy to block of flats

Volvo Buses uses 14 modules (totalling 200 kWh) of an electric bus in Gothenburg (Sweden) to provide extra energy to an innovative apartment complex. This energy, sourced from solar panels, helps to cope with peaks in consumption and to store solar energy for periods when less energy is produced. Surplus energy is sold to the grid or electricity is bought at night when the rates are lower. Read more about this: https://insideevs.com/volvo-buses-battery-second-life/

This pioneering project and research is made jointly possible by the European IRIS Smart Cities project, a Lighthouse project funded by the EU’s Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation.

These examples provide a lot of energy for the future and it is exciting to see what an EV battery is capable of after its first life!

Image meta

2.6 Recycling

What does the recycling of EV batteries include exactly?

  • Collection, transport and assessment
  • Dismantling of battery pack and module
  • Recycling (pyrometallurgical, mechanical, hydrometallurgical and hybrid, etc.)
  • Refining materials.
quote

EV batteries heading for recycling are considered “hazardous waste”. Currently, they must be collected by a recognised, registered IHM waste collector and transported by a recognised battery carrier. At Bebat we only work with recognised IHM waste collectors and carriers, and this removes any worries clients may have. We take care of the whole process: collection + storage + recognised IHM + recognised carrier + recognised processor. But other combinations are also possible, such as only collection and transport, for example. The client always decides.

Katrien Busselot, Logistics & Recycling manager at Bebat.

Facts and figures

until 2020, 85% of the total volume of collected EV batteries will be recycled and 15% will be available for second-use applications. From 2021, second-use will rise to 30%.
(Bebat – Möbius study)

Generic composition of EV battery system
Return state metalen

2.7 Towards a sustainable value chain

The aftercare phase of batteries is an essential component of creating a sustainable value chain. In Belgium, this area of expertise has been carried out by Bebat since 1995.

In 2018, Bebat, together with all Belgians, collected 3,208 tons of used batteries via a network of over 25,000 collection points. That is an increase of 5% compared to 2017. The collection percentage was around 61.6% as opposed to 60.6% in 2017. This means that Bebat easily surpasses the collection targets of 45% for the Flemish Region and 50% for the Walloon and Brussels Regions.

In the past 6 years, Bebat has collected, safely transported and stored, assessed and dismantled more than 10,000 EV batteries. Depending on the chosen further processing and the specialised company carrying this out, the EV batteries are then:

  • restored and prepared to be used again as an EV battery (re-use); or

  • prepared for a second-life application (re-purposing); or

  • recycled, in a process that recovers raw materials such as cobalt and lithium (recycling)

Bebat knows the specific needs of the sector and has expertise in-house:

  • restored and prepared to be used again as an EV battery (re-use); or

  • prepared for a second-life application (re-purposing); or

  • recycled, in a process that recovers raw materials such as cobalt and lithium (recycling)

Bebat also has a European network of specialised partners (Reneos) and we will soon boast our own assessment centre.

quote

Reneos, which started as a software platform, represents a European system of efficiently collecting EV batteries, including track & trace. This system is supported by our network of preferred partners. The client determines what happens. We can collect, store, dismantle and process in all European countries. To do this, we can either use our own partners or work with the client’s partners of choice. The client is able to follow everything closely via the track & trace system. We are a full-service provider and can manage the entire process if the client so wishes. This includes declarations and administration, safety risks involved in dismantling and storage, the diagnosis of EV batteries for further processing, right up to and including the reporting of recycling efficiency.

- Katrien Busselot, Logistics & Recycling manager Bebat.

A customised solution

No two situations are the same. And that is why Bebat has a customised solution for each manufacturer or importer.

  • Administrative compliance: Bebat manages the reporting process to the authorities, from what is introduced to the market, what is collected and transported, what is reused and recycled, to the recycling efficiency. The importer organises the collection and processing.

  • Logistics: Bebat organises the collection of batteries from the dealers and dismantlers at the end of their lifespan and arranges the transport to the recycler or reuser of choice. In this case, Bebat will also manage the reporting to the authorities.

  • Full service: entire process of compliance, collection, recycling and reuse managed by Bebat.

Bebat also provides solutions for:

  • the transportation of damaged lithium batteries (for example, following an accident),
  • the dismantling of batteries at the end of their lifespan, or
  • the safe storage of batteries.
Image meta

On the Belgian market, there are various solution providers for batteries from electric vehicles or other means of electric transport, each with a different service and their own expertise. We list all the suppliers for you, so that you can always make the right choice.

We list all providers for you, so you always make the right choice.

Trucks N1 to N3 (?)

Registration Limited to N1
Reporting on POM Limited to N1
Reporting on collection Limited to N1
Reporting on recycling efficiency Limited to N1
Transport & collection Limited to N1 *
Storage Limited to N1
Diagnosis Limited to N1 * *
Reuse Limited to N1 * *
Dismantling Limited to N1 *
Second life Limited to N1 * *
Recycling Limited to N1 *
European Collection network * *
SPOC for all batteries * *

PHEV-BEV M1 tot M3 (?)

Registration Limited to M1
Reporting on POM Limited to M1
Reporting on collection Limited to M1
Reporting on recycling efficiency Limited to M1
Transport & collection Limited to M1 *
Storage Limited to M1
Diagnosis Limited to M1 * *
Reuse Limited to M1 * *
Dismantling Limited to M1 *
Second life Limited to M1 * *
Recycling Limited to M1 *
European Collection network * *
SPOC for all batteries * *

E-mopeds and e-motorcycles L (?)

Registration > 20kg
Reporting on POM > 20kg
Reporting on collection > 20kg
Reporting on recycling efficiency > 20kg
Transport & collection > 20kg *
Storage > 20kg
Diagnosis > 20kg * *
Reuse > 20kg * *
Dismantling > 20kg *
Second life > 20kg * *
Recycling > 20kg *
European Collection network * *
SPOC for all batteries * *

Golf carts - Quadricycles

Registration
Reporting on POM
Reporting on collection
Reporting on recycling efficiency
Transport & collection *
Storage
Diagnosis * *
Reuse * *
Dismantling *
Second life * *
Recycling *
European Collection network * *
SPOC for all batteries * *

E-yachts

Registration
Reporting on POM
Reporting on collection
Reporting on recycling efficiency
Transport & collection *
Storage
Diagnosis * *
Reuse * *
Dismantling *
Second life * *
Recycling *
European Collection network * *
SPOC for all batteries * *

E-busses

Registration
Reporting on POM
Reporting on collection
Reporting on recycling efficiency
Transport & collection *
Storage
Diagnosis * *
Reuse * *
Dismantling *
Second life * *
Recycling *
European Collection network * *
SPOC for all batteries * *

Electric construction equipment

Registration
Reporting on POM
Reporting on collection
Reporting on recycling efficiency
Transport & collection *
Storage
Diagnosis * *
Reuse * *
Dismantling *
Second life * *
Recycling *
European Collection network * *
SPOC for all batteries * *

Electric forklifts and internal transport

Registration
Reporting on POM
Reporting on collection
Reporting on recycling efficiency
Transport & collection *
Storage
Diagnosis * *
Reuse * *
Dismantling *
Second life * *
Recycling *
European Collection network * *
SPOC for all batteries * *

E-bikes

Registration
Reporting on POM
Reporting on collection
Reporting on recycling efficiency
Transport & collection gratis betalend
Storage gratis
Diagnosis gratis
Reuse gratis
Dismantling gratis
Second life gratis
Recycling gratis betalend
European Collection network
SPOC for all batteries

Various batteries from button cells to starter battery

Registration
Reporting on POM
Reporting on collection
Reporting on recycling efficiency
Transport & collection gratis
Storage gratis
Diagnosis gratis
Reuse gratis
Dismantling gratis
Second life gratis
Recycling gratis
European Collection network
SPOC for all batteries

Micromobility E-steps, Hoverboards, Monowheel

Registration
Reporting on POM
Reporting on collection
Reporting on recycling efficiency
Transport & collection gratis betalend
Storage gratis
Diagnosis gratis
Reuse gratis
Dismantling gratis
Second life gratis
Recycling gratis betalend
European Collection network
SPOC for all batteries

Drones

Registration
Reporting on POM
Reporting on collection
Reporting on recycling efficiency
Transport & collection
Storage
Diagnosis
Reuse
Dismantling
Second life
Recycling
European Collection network
SPOC for all batteries

legend

General legend

Is offered

Is not offered

* Depending on the service provider - contact your provider for more information

*Comparison based on data available in Q1 2019.

*Waste collectors are e.g. Suez, Renewi, Vanheede,...
*Recyclers are e.g. Umicore, SNAM, Nickelhütte,...

*For all batteries < 20 kg, the bebat contribution has already been paid when the electric vehicle or means of transport is placed on the market, and so for these batteries, collection and recycling is free of charge by bebat.

Legend road codes

Category M1: Vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of passengers and having not more than eight seats in addition to the driver’s seat.

Category M2: Vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver’s seat and having a maximum mass not exceeding 5 tonnes.

Category M3: Vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver’s seat and having a maximum mass exceeding 5 tonnes.

N: Motor vehicles with at least four wheels designed and constructed for the carriage of goods.

  • Category N1 Vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of goods and having a maximum mass not exceeding 3.5 tonnes.
  • Category N2 Vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of goods and having a maximum mass exceeding 3.5 tonnes but not exceeding 12 tonnes.
  • Category N3 Vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of goods and having a maximum mass exceeding 12 tonnes.

Download the ebook

Printable version

Contact gegevens van Bebat